Abbreviations: ASO mice: alpha synuclein over-expressing mice aSyn: alpha-synuclein BBB: Blood Brain Barrier IBD: Inflammatory Bowel Disease IBS: Irritable Bowel Syndrome MSA: multiple system atrophy, Shy–Drager syndrome PD: Parkinson’s Disease SCFAs: Short Chain Fatty Acids SIBO: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth   According to the Merck Manual, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is defined as: “a slowly progressive, degenerative disorder Read More →

“Chronic low-grade inflammation is now considered to be a critical pathological factor underlying many modern chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, and is associated with aging. Chronic low-grade inflammation is characterized by elevated circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6. A primary cause Read More →

Yes, it’s as dreary as it looks. Readers of this blog know that wheat has long been one of my favorite whipping boys right alongside omega 6 polyunsaturated fats and alcohol binging. And the reason for this is because of the effects these foods and practices have on intestinal wall integrity, immune activation, motility and Read More →

If I had a cardboard box for a head I’d be sad too.  “Rumination refers to the tendency to repetitively think about the causes, situational factors, and consequences of one’s negative emotional experience. Basically, rumination means that you continuously think about the various aspects of situations that are upsetting. Think about your own tendencies. When Read More →

Abbreviations: BCM7: beta-casomorphin-7 FODMAP: fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols MCP1: monocyte chemotactic protein 1 MPO: myeloperoxidase NCGS: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity SIBO: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth   Today’s post is about an Italian trial confirming that all may not be right with the Western world’s favorite grain. The study is titled Small Amounts of Read More →

Abbreviations: F-HFD: fructose enriched high-fat coconut oil diet F-SO-HFD: fructose enriched high-fat soybean oil diet HFD: high-fat coconut oil diet LPSs: lipopolysaccharides PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids SO-HFD: high-fat soybean oil diet Viv: low-fat, high-fiber rodent diet   “Look! It’s moving. It’s sa — it’s… it’s alive. It’s alive… It’s alive, it’s moving, it’s alive! It’s Read More →

Abbreviations: CFU/mL: colony forming units per milliliter. ESS: euthyroid sick syndrome GI: gastrointestinal PPIs: proton-pump inhibitors SIBO: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth SIFBO: small intestinal fungal and bacterial overgrowth SIFO: small intestinal fungal overgrowth   Today I want to revisit two verified risk factors for small intestinal fungal and bacterial overgrowth (SIFBO). A study published in Read More →

  Today’s post will cover a ground-breaking study out of Sweden that examined the interactions between gut flora and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (1) This definition of the blood-brain barrier from Wikipedia sums up its structure and function quite nicely: “The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood Read More →

Cheshire Cat: Where are you going? Alice: Which way should I go? Cheshire Cat: That depends on where you are going. Alice: I don’t know. Cheshire Cat: Then it doesn’t matter which way you go. ― Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland   Dear Dr. Aaron E. Carroll, You don’t know me from Adam, but I feel Read More →

  Abbreviations: ATIs: amylase and trypsin enzyme inhibitors HFD: high-fat diet HPA axis: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis IAP: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (aka alkaline phosphatase) IL1-β: interleukin 1 beta LPSs: lipopolysaccharides NF-kB: nuclear factor kappa B PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids TLRs: toll-like receptors TLR4: toll-like receptor 4 TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha WGA: wheat germ agglutinin Today I Read More →

Saccharin

Today’s post is inspired by an Israeli paper published in the journal Nature that studied the effects on glucose metabolism and gut flora from ingesting three popular artificial sweeteners. What they found is of more than passing interest in this calorie-obsessed age. (1) I spend a lot of time on this website writing about the Read More →

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