If I had a cardboard box for a head I’d be sad too.   “Rumination refers to the tendency to repetitively think about the causes, situational factors, and consequences of one’s negative emotional experience. Basically, rumination means that you continuously think about the various aspects of situations that are upsetting. Think about your own tendencies. Read More →

Abbreviations: BCM7: beta-casomorphin-7 FODMAP: fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols MCP1: monocyte chemotactic protein 1 MPO: myeloperoxidase NCGS: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity SIBO: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth   Today’s post is about an Italian trial confirming that all may not be right with the Western world’s favorite grain. The study is titled Small Amounts of Read More →

Abbreviations: F-HFD: fructose enriched high-fat coconut oil diet F-SO-HFD: fructose enriched high-fat soybean oil diet HFD: high-fat coconut oil diet LPSs: lipopolysaccharides PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids SO-HFD: high-fat soybean oil diet Viv: low-fat, high-fiber rodent diet   “Look! It’s moving. It’s sa — it’s… it’s alive. It’s alive… It’s alive, it’s moving, it’s alive! It’s Read More →

Abbreviations: CFU/mL: colony forming units per milliliter. ESS: euthyroid sick syndrome GI: gastrointestinal PPIs: proton-pump inhibitors SIBO: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth SIFBO: small intestinal fungal and bacterial overgrowth SIFO: small intestinal fungal overgrowth   Today I want to revisit two verified risk factors for small intestinal fungal and bacterial overgrowth (SIFBO). A study published in Read More →

  Today’s post will cover a ground-breaking study out of Sweden that examined the interactions between gut flora and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (1) The blood-brain barrier is an immensely important structure. This definition provided by Wikipedia sums up its role quite nicely: “The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates Read More →

Cheshire Cat: Where are you going? Alice: Which way should I go? Cheshire Cat: That depends on where you are going. Alice: I don’t know. Cheshire Cat: Then it doesn’t matter which way you go. ― Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland   Dear Dr. Aaron E. Carroll, You don’t know me from Adam, but I feel Read More →

  Abbreviations: ATIs: amylase and trypsin enzyme inhibitors HFD: high-fat diet HPA axis: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis IAP: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (aka alkaline phosphatase) IL1-β: interleukin 1 beta LPSs: lipopolysaccharides NF-kB: nuclear factor kappa B PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids TLRs: toll-like receptors TLR4: toll-like receptor 4 TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha WGA: wheat germ agglutinin Because of Read More →


Today’s post is inspired by an Israeli paper published in the journal Nature that studied the effects on glucose metabolism and gut flora from ingesting three popular artificial sweeteners. What they found is of more than passing interest in this calorie-obsessed age. (1) I spend a lot of time on this website writing about the Read More →


  Abbreviations: CNS: central nervous system DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid DNMTs: DNA methyltranferases EAAT: excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3: excitatory amino acid transporter 3 ENS: enteric nervous system FODMAP: Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease GSH: glutathione IBS: irritable bowel syndrome LPSs: lipopolysaccharides SAM: S-adenosylmethionine SIFBO: small intestinal fungal and bacterial Read More →

Fresh Apple

  Today’s post will cover a question that repeatedly comes up during my health consults. It’s a question I’m sure many of you also have: “What diet should I be following when dealing with a gut issue?” Let me first dispense with dietary recommendations that have not been subjected to controlled trials to assess efficacy Read More →


  The metabolic consequences observed indicate that micobiota disruption during a critical development window can explain later life phenomena, including adult obesity. LDP [low-dose penicillin] may decrease particular early-life-protective bacterial populations, which is consistent with coevolution with microbes having specific interactions promoting metabolic fitness. As “keystone” species, their reduction could lead to broad intestinal ecologic Read More →

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